FCCU is one of the most important units in the oil reﬁnery as it converts heavy distillates into lighter ones (gasoline and diesel), which increases the yield and efficiency of the reﬁning process. The feedstock is mainly vacuum gas oil mixed with reﬁnery residues heated to extremely high temperatures (around +700°C to 800°C), making this application very critical. Consequently, the FCCU expansion joints utilised in this application are the most technically advanced among all the existing types. The design and manufacturing of them requires great expertise and capability. There are only a handful of manufacturers on a worldwide scale having the expertise to produce FCCU expansion joints, and Belman has joined this exclusive group.
FCCU EXPANSION JOINTS
WITH REFRACTORY LINING
DIMENSIONS OF FCCU EXPANSION JOINTS
FCCU expansion joints designed and manufactured by Belman are refractory lined and unlined expansion joints for fluid catalytic cracking. The FCCU expansion joints are typically ranging up to DN 1800, 27 metric tons in weight and up to 13,5 meters in length.
The capability range for Belman FCCU expansion joints is:
- Dimension: DN 15-6000 (up to DN 12.000 in segments)
- Bellows: Rolled, punch- and hydraulic formed bellows
- Design pressure: Up to 150 bar (depending on the diameter and temperature)
- Lifting capacity: Up to 40 tons
FCCU Expansion Joints
Technical data and descriptions of our FCCU expansion joints, illustrations and 3D drawings...
EXPERIENCED IN FCCU EXPANSION JOINTS
We have undertaken several FCCU projects over the years. For complex expansion joint projects in general our experience is approaching half a century.
We design and manufacture FCCU expansion joints according to customer speciﬁcations. We are able to design and manufacture according to various standards speciﬁed by globally active companies engaged in the reﬁning industry, such as UOP, Shell, ExxonMobil and more. We are familiar with various speciﬁcations and with project and/or customer requirements like clamshell options in the design phase. We are also accustomed to consulting clients concerning design enhancements to improve and streamline the original speciﬁed solution.
FCCU EXPANSION JOINT PROJECTS
FCCU EXPANSION JOINT ENGINEERING
Generally speaking expansion joints for fluid catalytic cracking can be divided into 3 main categories:
- Cold wall
- Hot wall
Belman designs and manufactures all these types of FCC expansion joints.
BELLOW CONSTRUCTION & MONITORING
The critical operating conditions predispose quite challenging requirements in regards to the design of the FCCU expansion joints. FCCU expansion joints are a key component in this pipe system, and the careful selection of bellow material is important. This selection of the most suitable material is often done according to customer requirements, the specification and/or based on experience.
Double ply or redundant ply bellows
Double ply or redundant ply bellows are widely utilized for FCCU applications. The simple double ply bellows utilize the strength of both plies to withstand the operation conditions.
Whereas redundant ply bellows are designed in a way, that each ply will be able to take up the full load. So if the inner ply is leaking the outer ply will be able to take up the load and operate until the next shutdown.
An option is control rods monitoring the complete system. The control rods are mounted over the bellows of the FCCU expansion joints and monitor the movements. If the insulation is worn out the heat will increase and this higher temperature will result in larger movements.
This solution gives good monitoring options as well as increasing operational safety. The two-ply design is monitored through a leak indicator (pressure gauge monitor). A redundant ply design offers even better safety and monitoring options, as the unit stays under operation until the scheduled outage even in the event of a minor leakage. Redundant ply bellows are calculated in a way that the single layer would be able to carry the full load alone. In other words, if the inner layer fails, the outer ply would be able to secure operational safety of the FCCU expansion joints until a scheduled shutdown. Additionally, the FCCU expansion joints are fitted with a pressure gauge monitor indicating the failure of the inner ply.
Generally speaking there are two types of monitors:
- Passive monitor
- Active monitor
OUR FCCU EXPANSION JOINTS ARE QUALITY ASSURANCED
As we are often involved in projects, where expansion joints are a part of a critical application, we understand the importance of the supporting documentation. Thus detailed quotation, supporting calculations, extensive quality control and testing procedures will generally be a part of the project documentation. This also includes a study of provided specifications, close dialogue with the customer, inspection of welding consumables, materials and a sub-supplies audit, test, documentation and final inspection.
Documentation and tests
Full traceability and welding documentation. Among others:
We undertake the required tests such as: Positive material identification (PMI), radiographic examination, dye penetrant, magnetic particle examination, hardness testing, ultra sound, pressure testing and leak detection.
SERVICES FOR FCCU EXPANSION JOINTS
We are used to working with complex specifications and advanced technical solutions and as part of our service we provide: CAD, 3D parametric design, Finite Element Analysis and pipe stress analysis.
Installation of FCCU expansion joints are complex and calls for experienced installers. Therefore, customers often require our assistance and advice. In addition to design and manufacture of FCCU expansion joints, and expansion joints in general, we have an experienced on-site service team that assists customers on all kinds of on-site work including:
- Full installation
- Supervision of installation
- Installation of Clamshell Bellows
FCCU Expansion Joints